Wild Capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus), on a tree near a river bank in the jungles of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Image: David M. Jensen/Wikipedia. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Male New World monkeys attract females by washing in urine (2011, February 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-02-male-world-monkeys-females-urine.html More information: Why do capuchin monkeys urine wash? An experimental test of the sexual communication hypothesis using fMRI, by Kimberley A. Phillips et al. American Journal of Primatology Early View, DOI:10.1002/ajp.20931 Urine sprays during courtship send mixed messages Explore further The new research, by Dr Kimberley Phillips and colleagues of the Department of Psychology at Trinity University in San Antonio, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans to study the brains of four adult female tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) while they were smelling the urine of juvenile males and of sexually mature adults.The results showed the monkeys’ brain scans were different when they were exposed to the urine of juveniles and adults, becoming much more active when the urine was from adult males. Several regions of the brain were activated when the females were sniffing the adult male urine, especially those regions associated with olfactory processing.Dr Phillips and her team suggest the increased activity shows the urine is being used as a means of communicating the male’s sexual availability and social status. The females’ ability to discriminate between the urine of young monkeys and sexually mature adults also suggests the females are able to detect the higher levels of testosterone in the adult males’ urine. Higher testosterone levels are linked with sexual maturity and also higher social status in capuchin monkeys.Previous hypotheses put forward to explain the urine-washing behavior included maintenance of body temperature and as a means of identification of individuals, but studies testing these hypotheses have been inconclusive. Another study reported that when females solicited the males, which they do when they are at their peak in fertility, the males increased the frequency of washing with urine.Several other species of New World monkeys show the same behavior of urinating into their hands and then rubbing it on their fur. They include squirrel monkeys, mantled howler monkeys, and other species of capuchins.The paper is published in the American Journal of Primatology. Dr Phillips, an associate professor of psychology, is investigating the biological and neurological bases of primate behaviors. (PhysOrg.com) — Male capuchin monkeys have been observed to urinate on their hands and then rub the urine vigorously into their fur, and now a new study by scientists in Texas suggests the behavior signals their availability to females, and the females find the smell of the urine-soaked fur attractive. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Physical Review Letters Citation: Physicists find that an ultrahigh-energy proton looks like a black disk (2011, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-physicists-ultrahigh-energy-proton-black-disk.html Physicists have been investigating proton-proton collisions for several decades. By calculating the fraction (or cross section) of proton-proton inelastic scattering processes and comparing it to the proton-proton total (elastic plus inelastic) cross section, researchers have gained a better understanding of the inner structure of protons. (Scientists have been investigating the growth of the proton-proton total cross section ever since it was discovered in the early 1970s by a team at CERN, of which Block was a member early in his career.)In this study, Block and Halzen analyzed measurements of the inelastic and total cross sections that were recently taken at two different energies by three independent experiments. At an energy of 7000 GeV, the Atlas collaboration measured an inelastic cross section of 69.1 millibarn (a millibarn [mb] is an area equal to 10-27 cm2), and the CMS collaboration used a completely different technique to measure it at a compatible 68 mb. At 57,000 GeV, the Pierre Auger Observatory collaboration used cosmic ray measurements to calculate an inelastic cross section of 90 mb. For comparison, Block and Halzen’s purely numerical calculations predict inelastic cross sections of 69.0 mb at 7000 GeV and 92.9 mb at 57,000 GeV, both of which agree closely with the experimental data. Block and Halzen also explain that 57,000 GeV is likely the highest energy at which such experiments can be performed, making it as close to asymptopia (defined here as the behavior of the cross section as the energy level approaches infinity) as scientists will ever get. However, the experimental measurements are still quite far from asymptopia. Yet in spite of these limitations, the data do provide some evidence of how the inelastic and total cross sections behave when the energy approaches infinity. When combining the experimental measurements with the predictions of their purely numerical approach, Block and Halzen found that, as the energy increases to infinity, the ratio of the inelastic cross section to the total cross section is about 0.509. In other words, an asymptotic proton scatters another proton half the time and absorbs it half the time.Interestingly, the predicted ratio of the inelastic cross section to the total cross section for a black disk is 0.5, which agrees with Block and Halzen’s result for the asymptotic proton, within measurement error. For this reason, the new findings provide the first experimental evidence that a proton becomes a black disk as its energy approaches asymptopia. The physicists’ model provides some further details about the asymptotic proton in terms of quantum chromodynamics. The scientists explain that, at ultrahigh energies, the proton structure is totally dominated by the gluons instead of quarks. In contrast, at sub-asymptotic energies, the quarks play a more significant role and there aren’t enough gluon constituents to form a shape that is totally black or a complete two-dimensional disk. The scientists’ model even predicts the mass of the lightest particle state made from gluons, dubbed the glueball. This clue to the glueball’s mass may aid in the search for glueballs, which has been a challenging goal of several experiments. In addition, the physicists’ calculations predict that the black disk is expanding, which is in accordance with very general theoretic predictions from the 1960s.Even though the ultrahigh energy of asymptotic protons makes it unlikely for them to be produced in experiments, the scientists say it’s possible that these highly energetic protons do exist in nature.“Asymptotic protons may exist as cosmic rays but with a tiny flux that even large air shower arrays such as Auger are insensitive to,” Halzen said. “Maybe someday we will develop cosmic ray detection techniques that will give us access to data at yet higher energies.”He added that understanding proton-proton interactions not only reveals hints of what high-energy protons look like, but it may also help scientists in their research.“[The proton-proton total cross section] value at very high energies is one of the ingredients for extracting physics from cosmic ray experiments such as Auger and the Telescope Array,” he said. “In that sense, our work has also some more practical value.” (PhysOrg.com) — What does a proton look like? The common answer to this question is that protons are much too small to scatter light, and since light is necessary for us to see things, protons do not “look” like anything. But in a new study, physicists have gathered sufficient evidence to show that, at least at very high energies, the proton is a black disk – sort of an elongated hockey puck. This description fits only for protons at such ultrahigh energies that even the most advanced experiments will probably never be able to detect them. Explore further This figure shows two protons crossing each other at the LHC at an impact parameter, b. Because of their velocity near the speed of light, the protons are contracted to thin disks. An analysis of the proton-proton cross section suggests that high-energy protons are black disks. Image credit: LHC The physicists, Martin Block, Professor Emeritus at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and Francis Halzen, Physics Professor at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, have published their analysis of the proton in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.As every student learns in physics class, a proton is a very small (about 1.6 femtometers [10-15 meters] in diameter) positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. A proton is made of two “up” quarks and one “down” quark. The three quarks are held together by the strong force, which is mediated by other particles called gluons. A lot of activity goes on inside a proton: quarks bounce around and exchange gluons, and virtual particle-antiparticle pairs constantly pop in and out of the vacuum. When accounting for these complex dynamics, and also that the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics postulates that protons have properties of both waves and particles, visualizing a proton is not a simple matter.However, thanks to relativity, physicists have some hints of what a proton should theoretically look like when its velocity approaches the speed of light. Due to Lorentz contraction, the proton should contract into a disk with no thickness, or in other words, a two-dimensional disk. This shape is due completely to relativity, and has nothing to do with the interactions between quarks, gluons, etc., which are instead described by quantum chromodynamics. In their study, Block and Halzen have now discovered that this disk is likely black. To reach this conclusion, they analyzed the results of three different experiments and developed their own numerical model that is completely independent of the experimental data in order to try to get a better glimpse of the proton’s structure. These investigations involve determining what happens when two protons interact, which occurs when physicists accelerate one proton to very high energies and “shoot” it at a second proton. “In our model, at least asymptotically [i.e., as the proton’s energy approaches infinity], a proton will scatter any particle (for instance another proton) like a billiard ball half of the time (elastic collision) and totally absorb it the other half of the time (inelastic collision),” Halzen told PhysOrg.com. Such behavior is very similar to the way a black disk should behave. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Martin M. Block and Francis Halzen. “Experimental Confirmation that the Proton is Asymptotically a Black Disk.” PRL 107, 212002 (2011). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.212002 New tool for proton spin Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.
Citation: Game group gets word on Intel’s new extensions for rendering (2013, March 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-game-group-word-intel-extensions.html (Phys.org) —Intel was not going to let an event like the Game Developers Conference from March 25 to March 29 in San Francisco, described on the conference site as the world’s largest professionals-only game industry event, go by without talking up the merits of Intel’s stepped-up graphics focus. Intel took advantage of the event’s special audience to announce new capabilities through DirectX extensions for software developers. The extensions will speed up and ease game rendering. © 2013 Phys.org Programmable Blend with PixelSync More information: newsroom.intel.com/community/i … ols-for-gaming-media The first of these extensions, PixelSync, will make it easier for developers to come up with the more challenging types of special effects. In Intel’s release describing these extensions, it said of PixelSync that the extension “provides access to underlying hardware that allows programmers to properly composite partially transparent pixels without the need for an expensive sorting operation.” PixelSync is to help speed up the sorting of transparent graphical elements. Intel said that game developers have looked forward to the kind of capability that PixelSync offers. They can more realistically render smoke, hair, windows, foliage, fences and other complex geometry and natural phenomena. “The artists working on ‘Grid2’ have been requesting this type of effect for years, and prior to this, it wasn’t possible to achieve it at a reasonable cost,” said Clive Moody, senior executive producer at Codemasters Racing. Intel also announced another extension, InstantAccess, which will make accessing data in Haswell’s CPU and GPU more efficient. InstantAccess works by allowing physical memory to be written and read from either the CPU or from built-in Intel HD Graphics.”These real-time rendering extensions are being released in advance of the launch of Intel’s newest generation of Core processors in order to give developers extra time to begin incorporating them into their products. Initially, these extensions are available through Intel’s implementation of DirectX and on Intel 4th gen Core platforms only,” said Intel. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Intel Upgrades Software Tools to Support Mac OS X Leopard
More information: Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone, Timm Kroeger, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1409785111 AbstractHigh ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. (Phys.org) —A team of research conservationists with members from several universities in the U.S. is suggesting in a paper they’ve had published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, that urban areas could benefit by investing in cost effective reforestation efforts around urban areas that currently suffer from high ozone levels. Planting trees, they suggest could help cities bring those levels down. The researchers note that despite aggressive efforts by many metropolitan areas to lower ozone levels in ground level air, levels remain high, causing the populations that live in them to live with an increased risk of health problems—prior research has indicated that as many as 152,000 premature deaths each year can be attributed to the damage ozone inflicts on lungs. Current efforts to combat ozone levels are aimed at the source, factory emissions, etc. Laws limiting emissions have not kept up with growth however, leading to increases in ozone levels. The researchers suggest a different approach—remove the ozone by planting trees. They suggest that land be purchased on the outskirts of cities with high ozone levels to be converted to forest—trees they note, remove both ozone, and one of its precursors.To bolster their point, the researchers looked at the Houston metro area in Texas, a part of the country with consistently high ozone levels. Land that is currently used for agriculture on the outskirts, they claim, could be purchased and replanted with trees, creating a 1.5-square-mile forest. They estimate that over a 30 year period, the reforested area could reduce ozone and precursors in ground-level air by 310 tons. They also note that if fast growing trees were planted, timber harvests could help make up initial outlays and loss of local revenue from agricultural products.The researchers also plotted potential targets on a map of the U.S., highlighting areas where reforestation would likely do the most good—along the I-95 corridor in the northeast, for example, and around Chicago, Detroit and many parts of California. The team concludes by noting that if something isn’t done, the problem of ozone pollution is only likely to get worse in the face of both continued growth and as global warming exacerbates the problem. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: Researchers suggest reforestation around urban areas to reduce ozone levels (2014, September 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-09-reforestation-urban-areas-ozone.html © 2014 Phys.org Credit: Yinan Chen/public domain Ozone in Colorado mountains surprises researchers
Octopus vulgaris. Image: Wikipedia. Journal information: Nature More information: Sangyul Baik et al. A wet-tolerant adhesive patch inspired by protuberances in suction cups of octopi, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature22382 Suction cup mat based on octopus’s suckers developed to build flexible pressure sensors Explore further In their search to create a better adhesive patch, the researchers looked to suction cups used by octopuses to grip objects and prey. They mimicked the suction cups by creating polymer sheets with cup-like dimples with soft spheres in the middle of each. They then tested differently sized dimples and spheres and found that 50 micrometer dimples offered the best grip, which, as it turned out, was the one closest to that used by an octopus in its underwater world. To better understand how the suction cups worked, the researchers studied their own creations under a microscope and discovered the secret to the octopus grip is water getting trapped beneath the sphere near the back edges of the cup—it creates a vacuum chamber when pressure is released.In testing the patches, the researchers found them able to attach and detach up to 1000 times without the need for replenishment—and without the need for adhesive materials. This, the team notes, makes them a much better option for skin patches as anyone who has used an adhesive patch can attest. Removing sticky patches can be painful, particularly if they have been used to cover a wound. The researchers report also that the patch could adhere to many surfaces, both flat and curved, including skin. And of course, it stuck just as well when the skin was wet. Perhaps most interesting was the fact that the vacuum also allowed the suction cup to work underwater.The patches the group made were simple rectangular sheets of dimpled plastic with tiny spheres in the middle of each, anchored to the sheet. The patches adhered when pressure was applied. Of course, for the patch to be used in medical or industrial applications a means for releasing the pressure created by the vacuum must be found, perhaps one based on the way an octopus releases its grip. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Sungkyunkwan University in South Korea has developed a type of adhesive patch that works under a variety of conditions including underwater. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they studied octopus suction cups to design a better patch for human applications. © 2017 Phys.org Citation: Octopus inspired adhesive patch works under water (2017, June 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-06-octopus-adhesive-patch.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Spectra, visibilities, differential phases and closure phase for each baseline observation, of the Brγ line (left) and high-n Pfund lines (right) for HD 50138. The dashed lines correspond to the systemic velocities of the lines. Flux is normalized to the continuum. Credit: Koutoulaki et al., 2018. Using European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) European astronomers have uncovered a complex circumstellar environment of the star HD 50138. The finding, which could provide important clues about the evolutionary status of this star, was presented in a paper published May 3 on the arXiv pre-print repository. Located some 1,100 light years away from the Earth, HD 50138 is a Herbig Be star of spectral type B8, about seven times larger and six times more massive than our sun. With a lumonisity of approximately 1,000 solar luminosities, it is one of the brightest Be stars in the southern sky.The evolutionary status of HD 50138 is still unclear. Some astronomers suggests that it as a pre-main sequence star, while others propose that it should be considered as an evolved object close to turn-off from the main sequence. Moreover, it is also not clear whether HD 50138 is part of the Orion Monoceros molecular cloud complex or not associated with any star-forming region. Determining such a possible association could provide additional hints of the age of this star.In order to learn more insights into the nature of HD 50138, a team of researchers led by Maria Koutoulaki of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin, Ireland, conducted near-infrared interferometric observations of the innermost circumstellar environment of this star. For this purpose they employed the VLT-Interferometer (VLTI) with the beam combiner AMBER (Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR). This instrument allowed the scientists to find that the star’s circumstellar environment is very complex.”We report observations of the Herbig B[e] star, HD 50138, using VLTI/AMBER interferometric observations in the K band at medium spectral resolution. (…) Our results reveal that the circumstellar environment is very complex,” the researchers wrote in the paper.Study unveils that the spectrum of HD 50138 shows continuum emission, as well as hydrogen emission lines of bright Brackett-gamma and faint high-n Pfund. The researchers underlined that this in contrast to previous studies that detected only continuum and Brackett-gamma line emission.”Our observations allowed us to map the size of the continuum emission and of the Brγ and high-n Pfund lines. The latter is detected for the first time,” the paper reads.The researchers estimated that the region of continuum emission has a projected size between 0.6 and 1.0 AU. When it comes to hydrogen lines, the projected size is about 0.4 AU. Moreover, they noted that both continuum and Brackett-gamma lines were found to trace an asymmetric origin but with opposing directions of asymmetries.In concluding remarks, the astronomers wrote that results regarding continuum and hydrogen lines, including morphology of the emission regions indicate complex circumstellar environment of HD 50138. They added that their findings also suggest that the studied object is most likely an evolved star.”Finally, although we cannot exclude the possibility that HD 50138 is a young star our results point to an evolved source,” the researchers concluded. Explore further More information: The circumstellar environment of HD50138 revealed by VLTI/AMBER at high angular resolution, arXiv:1805.01432 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1805.01432AbstractHD50138 is a Herbig B[e] star with a circumstellar disc detected at IR and mm wavelength. Its brightness makes it a good candidate for NIR interferometry observations. We aim to resolve, spatially and spectrally, the continuum and hydrogen emission lines in the 2.12-2.47 micron region, to shed light on the immediate circumstellar environment of the star. VLTI/AMBER K-band observations provide spectra, visibilities, differential phases, and closure phases along three long baselines for the continuum, and HI emission in Brγ and five high-n Pfund lines. By computing the pure-line visibilities, we derive the angular size of the different line-emitting regions. A simple LTE model was created to constrain the physical conditions of HI emitting region. The continuum region cannot be reproduced by a geometrical 2D elongated Gaussian fitting model. We estimate the size of the region to be 1 au. We find the Brγ and Pfund lines come from a more compact region of size 0.4 au. The Brγ line exhibits an S-shaped differential phase, indicative of rotation. The continuum and Brγ line closure phase show offsets of ∼-25±5o and 20±10o, respectively. This is evidence of an asymmetry in their origin, but with opposing directions. We find that we cannot converge on constraints for the HI physical parameters without a more detailed model. Our analysis reveals that HD50138 hosts a complex circumstellar environment. Its continuum emission cannot be reproduced by a simple disc brightness distribution. Similarly, several components must be evoked to reproduce the interferometric observables within the Brγ, line. Combining the spectroscopic and interferometric data of the Brγ and Pfund lines favours an origin in a wind region with a large opening angle. Finally, our results point to an evolved source. Citation: Observations reveal complex environment of HD 50138 (2018, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-reveal-complex-environment-hd.html © 2018 Phys.org Researchers study complex morphology of the protoplanetary disc around star MWC 758 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Kolkata: For the first time in its 34-year history, Kolkata Metro has decided to set up public toilets at Metro stations.According to sources at the metro railways, the four stations where such facilities will come up include — Sobhabazar-Sutanati, Sahid Khudiram and Noapara.It may be mentioned that passengers of Metro railways had to face a lot of problem due to lack of public toilets at the station.The metro network currently consists of one operational line of 27.22 km from Noapara in the north to Kavi Subhash (Garia) in the south with more than 300 services daily. On an average, more than 6.5 lakh commuters avail metro services in the city and the number of stations stands at 24.The decision has been welcomed by the citizens particularly women. “We will be immensely benefitted if there are public toilets at all stations. In foreign countries, there are toilets inside metro compartments,” Puja Jain, a daily commuter said.
Kolkata: Rural is urban with a time lag, said Alpana Parida, managing director, DY Works, while addressing the third edition of the Rural Marketing Dialogue organised by CII.Parida said that the drivers of “behaviour and motivation” in rural areas are different from the urban ones. The belief system in rural areas is pegged on revering abundance, socio-economic and socio-political power and uncertain future. This, in turn, influences rural buying patterns, according to Parida. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeShe told the marketing strategists, decision-makers, CEOs and academics present at the seminar that products that cater to “sensorial fulfilment”, have a better scope in rural India as wealth and success are very “visible” and not “line items on paper”. While giving examples of rural beliefs and trends, Parida said as villages have grown up on local drinks which are healthy and substantial, drinks manufacturers can look at innovative health beverages to get a grip on this market. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedParida stressed that rural marketing is more than “small packets, shiny packaging” and the specific product innovations, blending with the environment and belief structures of this unique and integral part of India, would go a long way in successfully establishing various brands. Rajesh Shukla, managing director & CEO of People Research on India’s Consumer Economy (PRICE), said with “39% of rural rich spread across 600,000 villages across India” and with “55% of the national income coming in from the villages”, desegregation of information across geographies and understanding attitudes are keys to the success of rural economy. The Rural Marketing Dialogue focused on the rural FMCG sale that is estimated to be $100 billion, up from the current $12 billion, by 2025.
Kolkata: The discovery of an unpublished letter written by Mahatma Gandhi to a 24-year-old youth in Kalighat, expressing his doubts about starting a monthly magazine exclusively for the Harijans in Kolkata 85 years ago, has shed light on a new revelation before the 150th birth anniversary of the Father of the Nation, which falls on October 2.Sudhir Kumar Mitra, a resident of Kalighat, wrote a letter to Gandhiji who was then at Yerwada Jail in Pune, to start a magazine exclusively devoted to Dalits. Mitra, who was 24-years-old then, had seen two Dalit women being denied entry into Kalighat Temple in 1933. Most of the people who used to reside in the areas surrounding the temple were Brahmins and they looked down upon the Dalits. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeMitra, a graduate of Scottish Church College, began a movement along with some local Brahmin youths, demanding that Dalit women be allowed to enter Kalighat Temple.He wrote a letter to Gandhiji on April 10, 1933, expressing his desire to start a magazine exclusively for the untouchables and sought his blessings.On April 14, Gandhiji sent a reply to Mitra that read: “I have your letter of 10th instant. I doubt very much if a monthly magazine exclusively devoted to untouchability is called for. You would therefore forgive me for not blessing your venture in anticipation.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedIt may be mentioned that Gandhiji had started a weekly journal called Harijan in English on February 11, 1933, from Yerwada Jail. He also published Harijan Bandhav in Gujarati and Harijan Sevak in Hindi.However, the refusal of Gandhiji to support his cause did not dampen Mitra’s spirit. He was the key person in setting up Satyacharan Institute, a library in 1930 in Kalighat. The library is now a state government sponsored unit. Mitra’s unflinching respect for Gandhiji also continued. On February 14, 1948, just a fortnight after the assassination of Gandhiji on January 30, 1948, Mitra brought out the first biography on Gandhiji in Bengali. It was published by Sri Guru Prakashani.After 70 years, the book has been edited by Pallav Mitra, Sudhir’s son and will be published by Parul Prakashani On Monday. The reprinted version contains 12 poems on Gandhiji by Rabindranath, Kazi Nazrul, Sukanta Bhattacharya and Buddhadeb Basu among others.